You are given multiple integer sets and you need to merge them into a single set in the fastest possible way.


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Suppose we have 3 arrays of integer sets and we need to merge them. The fastest solution would be possible in time of O(n1 + n2 + n3) where n1, n2, n3 are the lengths of the three sets respectively. The solution lies in using a bit-vector (also called as bit-set or a bit-array) to represent elements using the index and then iterating over them.

  • Construct a bit-array
  • Iterate over the first array and for each integer set the corresponding bit to true
  • Repeat the above process for remaining arrays
  • Any duplicate element will result in setting true an already set bit
  • The resultant bit-array is the merge of all the arrays
public void mergeArrays(int[] array1, int[] array2, int[] array3) {
  BitSet bitSet = new BitSet();

  // start merging
  for(int num : array1) {
    bitSet.setBit(num, true);
  for(int num : array2) {
    bitSet.setBit(num, true);
  for(int num : array3) {
    bitSet.setBit(num, true);

  // output
  int index = -1;
  do {
    index = bitSet.getNextSetBit(index);
    if(index < 0) {

  } while(true);

The solution above can be extended to as many arrays as are provided in the problem definition. The time to sort will still remain O(N) where N is the sum of total number of elements across all provided arrays.

Optimizations available

  • One can make use of sparsed-bit-arrays to reduce memory consumption. Refer to [brettwooldridge/SparseBitSet] ( for one such implementation.

  • If the arrays are really, really huge - an implementation that uses file-based persistence of a bit-array can be used. Refer to one such implementation available in the jerry-core project.

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